?, , .

, .

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

20 . 100 000 . , , . !

1

1. ( 1, . 45).

t1 = 27 1 = 0,1 2. , n. t2, Q, , , G. . , , 13. .

t1,

N

G, /

1,

2,

48

27

1,33

700

0,1

0,95

T2, Q, N ?

:

1). . t1 = t2 = 27C; U = 0;

;

:

.

2). .

; k = 1,4; q = 0.

K;

.

3). . ;

K;

;

.

:

2,

q

U

l

S

N,

/

.

300

193,836

0

193,836

0,65

37,69

.

570,78

0

194,29

272

0

52,9

.

524,46

96,6

161,05

259,63

0,24

50,5

2, (4, . 47).

, ᒺ , V, , t'1, t''1, t'2, t''2. , . 16.

VH, 3/

K, /(2)

t'1C

t''1C

t'2C

t''2C

48

9000

26

700

500

10

400

:

, 2:

:

: = 1,03 /;

:

Q = Cpmt = 1,031,93(400 10) = 775,281 ;

:

). :

). :

3. (1, . 48).

D. , , , (); 1 (1 3) ᒺ , t. , , . 17.

. , 58 .

D, /



t, C

48

3 ()

160

0,15

130

:

WP = 18; AP = 29,5; SP = 1; CP = 37,3; HP = 2,8;

NP = 0,9; OP = 10,5; =13,9 /.

.

: = 1,25.

:

=Ҡ+=1,25+0,15=1,4.

:

V0 = 0,089CP + 0,265HP + 0,033(SP OP) =

= 0,08937,3 + 0,2652,8 + 0,033(1 10,5) = 3,75 3/;

ᒺ :

V = ( 1)V0 = (1,4 1)3,75 = 1,5 3/;

ᒺ :

VRO2 = 0,0186(CP + 0,375SP) = 0,0186(37,3 + 0,3751) = 0,701 3/;

ᒺ :

VR2 = 0,79V0 + 0,008NP = 0,793,75 + 0,0080,9 = 2,97 3/;

ij ᒺ :

V = VRO2 + VR2 + V = 0,701 + 2,97 + 1,5 = 5,171 3/;

ᒺ :

VH2O = 0,0124(9HP + WP) + 0,0161 V0 =

= 0,0124(92,8 + 18) + 0,01613,75 = 0,596 3/;

ᒺ :

V = V + VH2O = 5,171 + 0,596 = 5,767 3/;

:

I = [(ViCi)]t = (VRO2CRO2 + VR2CR2 + VH2OCH2O + VCB)t.

ᒺ ,

t = 130C, /(3): CRO2 = 1,8; CR2 = 1,3; CH2O = 1,52; CB=1,3.

I = (0,7011,8 + 2,971,3 + 0,5961,52 + 1,51,3)130 = 1037,2 /.

4. (2, . 46).

1 = 3 1 = 0,95 , t; 2. ( hs ) ( 1 ), , 2 . . , 1. , , 14.

t, C

p2,

p1,

235

3,0

0,50

:

0 = 2635 /; t1 = 140C;

t = t1 + t = 140 + 235 = 375C;

i = 3240 /;

q = i i0 = 3240 2635 = 605 /;

x2 = 0,912; iK = 2340 /;

l = i iK = 3240 2340 = 900 /;

tK = 24C;

iK = CPBtK = 4,224 = 100,8 /;

q = i iK = 3240 100,8 = 3139,2 /;

 = l /q = 900 /3139,2 = 0,29.

P = 0,5 ; iK = 2300 /; 2 = 0,9.

l = i i = 3240 2300 = 940 /.

5. (4, . 50).

. , , , . , , /. , , .

Ne,

N, /

pi,

z

i

S/D

48

100

2100

600

4

0,38

0,81

0,95

:

ᒺ :

:

:

:

6. (3, . 47).

[ = 20 /()] , t. , t, 0,1 . 1 2 ; q1, 1 , d1, d2. , , 15.

t,

, /

t,

d1,

d2,

48

200

0,42

18

190

210

:

˳ :

, :

:

; .

.

= 1,05.

1 GrPr.

t = 18: Pr = 0,7; V = 13,6106 2/;

 = 2,46102 /().

;

 = 1/T; t t t = 120 18 = 102C;

GrPr = 0,7127,5106 = 89,25106; (GrPr) 109;

Nu = 0,5(GrPr)0,25(Pr /Pr)0,25 = 0,5(89,25106)0,25(0,7 /1,05)0,25 = 52,5.

102 = 416,364 /.

7.

= 470 1 = 30 1 , , 2 = 20 . (/), f = 30 .

:

:

ᒺ:

:

:

8. (3, . 44).

D, G(), , 1 t1, 2=4. ³ =0,76, N, t. 3 .

t1,

t,

1,

=2,

N,

48

380

0,76

14

7

4

6

:

IS :

1=3110

t=f(P=4;x=1)=30

=0,71=0,77=4,

:

:

=0=11350,76=862,6

=2247,4

IS : 2=0,872

:

:

:

9.

̳ , 1=2, t1 t2. , = 1=2.

1

1,

1,

48

4,8

600

300

:

:

S=5,67 .

:

:

̳

³

" "

: 300

2ѳ-95 ..

: ..

53

1998 .

950200

. ³, 1998 .

2

1. 7

2. 10

3. 13

4. 15

5. 18

6. 31

7. 33

8. - 36

9. 37

10. 48

11. 52

12. 63

13. 66

ᒺ . 54,2 . , ̳ 59%.

104 , 30 , .

, , 㳿, . 1996 30 45% .

, .

1996 㳿 18,9 / 4,5 / 1900 . 1995 , 1996 㳿 0,7 /, 㳿 0,4 /. , ̳ , , 1996 쳿 81,3 . ...

, 㳿 () . , ̳ 1996 , 1995 , 1,29% 13,32%.

:

- , 110 ;

- , 㳿;

- , ;

- , .

㳿 ̳ .

̳ :

- 1997 ;

- 㳿 ;

- 2000 .

2010 , ᒺ . 9 . . .

, , :

- 125 ;

- ( 8 쳿 );

- 800 .

6, 7, 8 . , . [ . 2- - 3-6 1997 .].

.

..

1.

300 .

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • - .

  • .

  • .

  • 1.

    1.

    KG

    P,

    T C

    tC

    P

    Q,

    1

    29

    600

    600

    3

    15

    : 6 1998 .

    : ________ ..

    : _________ ..

    : 24 1998 .

    :

     = 0.81;

     = 0.9;

     = 0.84;

     = 0.75;

     = 0.98;

     = 0.98;

     = 0.8;

     = 0.99;

     = 0.96;

     = 0.91;

    = 0.98.

    t3 = t4 = t5 = t6 = 3C;

    t7 =t8 = t9 =1C.

    0 = 1 = 2 = 3 = 0,05.

    4 = 5 = 6 = 7 = 8= 9 = 0,08.

    P0 = 0.95P= 0.9529 = 27,55 ;

    P1 = 0.235P0 = 0.23527,55 = 6,47 ;

    = P2 = 0.1666P0 = 0.166627,55 = 4,589 ;

    P3 = 0.0071P0 = 0.007127,55 = 1,85 ;

    P4 = 0.0271P0 = 0.027127,55 = 0,75 ;

    P5 = 0.015P0 = 0.01527,55 = 0,41 ;

    P = 0,9= 0,94,589 = 4,13 ;

    = P6 = 0.009583P0 = 0.00958327,55 = 0,26 ;

    P7 = 0.00471P0 = 0.0047127,55 = 0,13 ;

    = P= 3 ;

    G = KG264 = 1264 = 264 /.

    2.

    . 3. .

    :

    i0 = 3450 /;

    =2930 /;

    = i0 = 3450 2930 = 520 /;

    = = 5200,81 = 421,2 /;

    = i0 = 3450 421,2 = 3028,8 /;

    i1 = 3100 /;

    i2 = = 3028,8 /.

    :

    i = 3670 /;

    = 2860 /;

    = i0 = 3670 2860 = 810 /;

    =c = 8100,9 = 729 /;

    = i = 3670 729 = 2941 /;

    i3 = 3430 /;

    i4 = 3190 /;

    i5 = 3040 /;

    i6 = = 2941 /.

    :

    = 2230 /;

    = = 2941 2230 = 711 /;

    = = 7110,84 = 597,24 /;

    = = 2941 597,24 = 2343,76 /;

    i7 = 2820 /;

    i8 = 2730 /;

    i9 = 2610 /.

    3.

    : :

    Pi = (1 - i)Pi; ti = f (Pi) = C.

    P1 = 0,95 6,47 = 6,1465 ; t1 = f (P1) = 280C;

    P2 = 0,95 4,589 = 4,35955 ; t2 = f (P2) = 255C;

    P3 = 0,95 1,85 = 1,7575 ; t3 = f (P3) = 210C;

    P4 = 0,92 0,75 = 0,69 ; t4 = f (P4) = 165C;

    P5 = 0,92 0,41 = 0,3772 ; t5 = f (P5) = 140C;

    P6 = 0,92 0,26 = 0,239 ; t6 = f (P6) = 125C;

    P7 = 0,92 0,13 = 0,1196 ; t7 = f (P7) = 105C;

    P8 = 0,92 0,07 = 0,0644 ; t8 = f (P8) = 85C;

    P9 = 0,92 0,03 = 0,0276 . t9 = f (P9) = 65C.

    ﳿ ( .3):

    i1 = 3100 /;

    i2 = 3030 /;

    i3 = 3430 /;

    i4 = 3190 /;

    i5 = 3040 /;

    i6 = 2940 /;

    i7 = 2820 /;

    i8 = 2730 /;

    i9 = 2610 /.

    4.


    :

    t=70C

    t==150C

    =73C

    =120C

    :

    t'= t'4 = 165C

    t'= t'6 = 125C

    = i4= 3190 /

    = i6 = 2940 /

    :

    G = Q103/(Cp(t t)) = 15103/(4,2(150 70)) = 44,643 /.

    ). .

    = p= 4.2120 = 504 /;

    = i= pt= 4.2150 = 630 /;

    = pt' = 4.2165 = 693 /.

    г :

    G i + G i4 = G i + G i;

    G = G.

    G = G = (G i - G i)/( i4 - i) =

    = (44,643 630 - 44,643 504)/(3190 - 693) = 2,253 /.

    ). .

    =p= 4.273 = 306.6 /;

    = pt' = 4.2125 = 525 /.

    г :

    G i + G i6 + G i = G i + G i;

    G = G + G.

    G = [G(i - i) + G(i6 - i)] / (i6 - i) =

    = [44,643(504 306,6) + 2,253(2941 - 693)] / (2941 - 525) = 5,744 /.

    G = G - G = 5,744 - 2,253 = 3,491 /.

    .

    i= pt= 4.270 = 294 /.

    :

    G i + G i = G i + G i;

    G = G.

    i = (G (i - i) + G i)/ G =

    = (44,643 (294 306,6) + 5,744 525)/ 5,744 = 427,071 /.

    t = i / 4,2 = 101,7C.

    5.

    G = KG264 = 1264 = 264 /.

    ﳿ .

    i(10-) = 4,2 tʒ, . t = t(10-) - t, C.

    i9 = 4,2 280 = 1176 ; t9 = 280 - 1 = 279 C;

    i8 = 4,2 255 = 1071 ; t8 = 255 - 1 = 254 C;

    i7 = 4,2 210 = 882 ; t7 = 210 - 1 = 209C;

    i6 = 4,2 165 = 693 ; t6 = 165 - 3 = 162C;

    i5 = 4,2 140 = 588 ; t5 = 140 - 3 = 137C;

    i4 = 4,2 125 = 525 ; t4 = 125 - 3 = 122C;

    i3 = 4,2 105 = 441 ; t3 = 105 - 3 = 102C;

    i2 = 4,2 85 = 357 ; t2 = 85 - 0 = 85C;

    i1 = 4,2 65 = 273 . t1 = 65 - 0 = 65C.

    i = 4,2 t, .

    i1 = 4,2 65 = 273 ;

    i2 = 4,2 85 = 357 ;

    i3 = 4,2 102 = 428,4 ;

    i4 = 4,2 122 = 512,4 ;

    i5 = 4,2 137 = 575,4 ;

    i6 = 4,2 162 = 680,4 ;

    i7 = 4,2 209 = 877,8 ;

    i8 = 4,2 254 = 1066,8 ;

    i9 = 4,2 279 = 1171,8 .

    :

    t = f (P) = 26C; i = i1 = 4,2 t = 109,2 /.

    ()

    10 /:

    G10 = G20 = G30 = G40 = G50 = G60 = G70 = G80 = G90 = 10 /.

    :

    G = G1 = G (+G) = 264 (90 + 5,744) = 168,256 /.

    G2 = G3 = G4 = G5 = G6 = G7 = G8 = G9 = G = 264 /.

    .

    G1 = G + G10 = 168,256 + 10 = 178,256 /.

    G1i1 + G9i9 = G1i1;

    G11 = G9 = (G1i1 - G1i1)/ i9 =

    = (178,256273 - 168,256109,2)/ 2610 = 11,606 /.

    G11i11 + G8i8 + Gi + G3i3 = G2i2;

    G21 = G8 = (G2i2 - G1i1 - Gi - G3i3)/ i8 =

    = (264357 - 178,256273 5,744427,071 - 70441)/ 2730 = 4,491 /.

    G7i7 + G2i2 + G4i4 = G3i3 + G3i3;

    G31 = G7 = (G3i3 - G2i2 G4i4 + G3i3)/ i7 =

    = (264428,4 - 264357 60525 + 70441)/ 2820 = 6,461 /.

    G6i6 + G3i3 + G5i5 = G4i4 + G4i4;

    G41 = G6 = (G4i4 - G3i3 G5i5 + G4i4)/ i6 =

    = (264512,4 - 264428,4 - 50588 + 60525)/ 2940 = 8,257 /.

    ϒ

    G5i5 + G4i4 + G6i6 = G5i5 + G5i5;

    G51 = G5 = (G5i5 - G4i4 - G6i6 + G5i5)/ i5 =

    = (264575,4 - 264512,4 - 40693 + 50588)/ 3040 = 6,024 /.

    G4i4 + G5i5 + G7i7 = G6i6 + G6i6;

    G61 = G4 = (G6i6 - G5i5 G7i7 + G6i6)/ i4 =

    = (264680,4 - 264575,4 - 30882 + 40693)/ 3190 = 9,085 /.

    G3i3 + G6i6 + G8i8 = G7i7 + G7i7;

    G71 = G3 = (G7i7 - G6i6 G8i8 + G7i7)/ i3 =

    = (264877,8 - 264680,4 - 201071 + 30882)/ 3430 = 16,663 /.

    G2i2 + G7i7 + G9i9 = G8i8 + G8i8;

    G81 = G2 = (G8i8 - G7i7 G9i9 + G8i8)/ i2 =

    = (2641066,8 - 264877,8 - 101176 + 201071)/ 3030 = 19,655 /.

    G1i1 + G8i8 + G10i10 = G9i9 + G9i9;

    G91 = G1 = (G9i9 - G8i8 G10i10 + G9i9)/ i1 =

    = (2641171,8 - 2641066,8 - 0 + 101176)/ 3100 = 12,735 /.

    :

    G11 = 11,606 /; G21 = 4,491 /; G31 = 6,461 /;

    G41 = 8,257 /.; G51 = 6,024 /; G61 = 9,085 /;

    G71 = 16,663 /; G81 = 19,655 /; G91 = 12,735 /.

    = 94,977 /.

    ( )

    G3 =- G11 - G21 = 94,977 - 11,606 - 4,491 = 78,88 /.

    G4 = G3 - G31 = 78,88 6,461 = 72,419 /.

    G5 = G4 - G41 = 72,419 8,257 = 64,162 /.

    G6 = G5 - G51 = 64,162 6,024 = 58,138 /.

    G7 = G6 - G61 = 58,138 9,085 = 49,053 /.

    G8 = G7 - G71 = 49,053 16,663 = 32,39 /.

    G9 = G8 - G81 = 32,39 19,655 = 12,735 /.

    G = G (+G) = 264 (94,977 + 5,744) = 163,279 /.

    G1 = G + G11 = 163,279 + 11,606 = 174,885 /.

    G12 = (G1i1 - G1i1)/ i9 =

    = (174,885273 - 174,885109,2)/ 2610 = 10,975 /.

    G22 = (G2i2 - G1i1 - Gi - G3i3)/ i8 =

    = (264357 - 174,885273 5,744427,071 - 78,88441)/ 2730 = 3,394 /.

    G32 = (G3i3 - G2i2 G4i4 + G3i3)/ i7 =

    = (264428,4 - 264357 72,419525 + 78,88441)/ 2820 = 5,537 /.

    G42 = (G4i4 - G3i3 G5i5 + G4i4)/ i6 =

    = (264512,4 - 264428,4 - 64,162588 + 72,419525)/ 2940 = 7,642 /.

    G52 = (G5i5 - G4i4 G6i6 + G5i5)/ i5 =

    = (264575,4 - 264512,4 - 58,138693 + 64,162588)/ 3040 = 4,628 /.

    G62 = (G6i6 - G5i5 G7i7 + G6i6)/ i4 =

    = (264680,4 - 264575,4 - 49,053882 + 58,138693)/ 3190 = 7,757 /.

    G72 = (G7i7 - G6i6 G8i8 + G7i7)/ i3 =

    = (264877,8 - 264680,4 - 32,391071 + 49,053882)/ 3430 = 17,693 /.

    G82 = (G8i8 - G7i7 G9i9 + G8i8)/ i2 =

    = (2641066,8 - 264877,8 - 12,7351176 + 32,391071)/ 3030 = 22,973 /.

    G92 = (G9i9 - G8i8 G10i10 + G9i9)/ i1 =

    = (2641171,8 - 2641066,8 - 0 + 12,7351176)/ 3100 = 13,773 /.

    :

    G12 = 10,975 /; G22 = 3,394 /; G32 = 5,537 /;

    G42 = 7,642 /; G52 = 4,628 /; G62 = 7,757 /;

    G72 = 17,693 /; G82 = 22,973 /; G92 = 13,773 /.

    = 94,372 /.

    G3 =- G1 - G2 = 94,372 - 10,975 - 3,394 = 80.003.

    G4 = G3 - G32 = 80.003 - 5,537 = 74,466.

    G5 = G4 - G42 = 74,466 - 7,642 = 66,824.

    G6 = G5 - G52 = 66,824 - 4,628 = 62,196.

    G7 = G6 - G62 = 62,196 - 7,757 = 54,439.

    G8 = G7 - G72 = 54,439 - 17,693 = 36,746.

    G9 = G8 - G82 = 36,746 - 22,973 = 13,773.

    G = G1 = G - (+G) = 264 -(94,372+5,744) = 163,884 /.

    G1 = G + G12 = 163,884 + 10,975 = 174,859 /.

    G13 = (G1i1 - G1i1)/ i9 =

    = (174,859273 - 174,859109,2)/ 2610 = 10,974 /.

    G23 = (G2i2 - G1i1 - Gi - G3i3)/ i8 =

    = (264357 - 174,859273 5,744427,071 - 80.003441)/ 2730 = 3,215 /.

    G33 = (G3i3 - G2i2 G4i4 + G3i3)/ i7 =

    = (264428,4 - 264357 74,466525 + 80.003441)/ 2820 = 5,332 /.

    G43 = (G4i4 - G3i3 G5i5 + G4i4)/ i6 =

    = (264512,4 - 264428,4 - 66,824588 + 74,466525)/ 2940 = 7,476 /.

    G53 = (G5i5 - G4i4 G6i6 + G5i5)/ i5 =

    = (264575,4 - 264512,4 - 62,196693 + 66,824588)/ 3040 = 4,218 /.

    G63 = (G6i6 - G5i5 G7i7 + G6i6)/ i4 =

    = (264680,4 - 264575,4 - 54,439882 + 62,196693)/ 3190 = 7,149 /.

    G73 = (G7i7 - G6i6 G8i8 + G7i7)/ i3 =

    = (264877,8 - 264680,4 - 36,7461071 + 54,439882)/ 3430 = 17,718 /.

    G83 = (G8i8 - G7i7 G9i9 + G8i8)/ i2 =

    = (2641066,8 - 264877,8 - 13,7731176 + 36,7461071)/ 3030 = 24,11 /.

    G93 = (G9i9 - G8i8 G10i10 + G9i9)/ i1 =

    = (2641171,8 - 2641066,8 - 0 + 13,7731176)/ 3100 = 14,167 /.

    :

    G13 = 10,974 /; G23 = 3,215 /; G33 = 5,332 /;

    G43 = 7,476 /; G53 = 4,218 /; G63 = 7,149 /;

    G73 = 17,718 /; G83 = 24,11 /; G93 = 14,167 /.

    = 94,359 /.

    |G13 - G12|= |10,974 - 10,975| = 0,001 0,2;

    |G23 - G22|= |3,215 - 3,394| = 0,179 0,2;

    |G43 - G42|= |7,476 - 7,642| = 0,166 0,2;

    |G73 - G72|= |17,718 - 17,693| = 0,025 0,2.

    (1, 2, 4, 7- ).

    G3 =- G13 - G23 = 94,359 - 10,974 - 3,215 = 80,17.

    G4 = G3 - G33 = 80,17 - 5,332 = 74,838.

    G5 = G4 - G43 = 74,838 - 7,476 = 67,362.

    G6 = G5 - G53 = 67,362 - 4,218 = 63,144.

    G7 = G6 - G63 = 63,144 - 7,149 = 55,995.

    G8 = G7 - G73 = 55,995 - 17,718 = 38,277.

    G9 = G8 - G83 = 38,277 - 24,11 = 14,167.

    G = G1 = G-(+G) = 264 - (94,359+5,744) = 163,897 /.

    G1 = G + G13 = 163,897 + 10,974 = 174,871 /.

    G34 = (G3i3 - G2i2 G4i4 + G3i3)/ i7 =

    = (264428,4 - 264357 74,838525 + 80,17441)/ 2820 = 5,289 /.

    G54 = (G5i5 - G4i4 G6i6 + G5i5)/ i5 =

    = (264575,4 - 264512,4 - 63,144693 + 67,362588)/ 3040 = 4,106 /.

    G64 = (G6i6 - G5i5 G7i7 + G6i6)/ i4 =

    = (264680,4 - 264575,4 - 55,995882 + 63,144693)/ 3190 = 6,925 /.

    G84 = (G8i8 - G7i7 G9i9 + G8i8)/ i2 =

    = (2641066,8 - 264877,8 - 14,1671176+38,2771071)/ 3030 = 24,498 /.

    G94 = (G9i9 - G8i8 G10i10 + G9i9)/ i1 =

    = (2641171,8 - 2641066,8 - 0 + 14,1671176)/ 3100 = 14,316 /.

    :

    G34 = 5,289 /; G54 = 4,106 /; G64 = 6,925 /;

    G84 = 24,498 /; G94 = 14,316 /.

    = 94,517 /.

    |G34 - G33|= |5,289 - 5,332| = 0,043 0,2;

    |G54 - G53|= |4,106 - 4,218| = 0,112 0,2;

    |G94 - G93|= |14,316 - 14,167| = 0,149 0,2.

    (3, 5, 9- ).

    ϒ

    G3 =- G14 - G24 = 94,517 10,974 - 3,215 = 80,328.

    G4 = G3 - G34 = 80,328 - 5,289 = 75,039.

    G5 = G4 - G44 = 75,039 - 7,476 = 67,563.

    G6 = G5 - G54 = 67,563 - 4,106 = 63,457.

    G7 = G6 - G64 = 63,457 - 6,925 = 56,532.

    G8 = G7 - G74 = 56,532 - 17,718 = 38,814.

    G9 = G8 - G84 = 38,814 - 24,498 = 14,316.

    G = G1 = G-(+G) = 264 - (94,517+5,744) = 163,739 /.

    G1 = G + G14 = 163,739 + 10,974 = 174,713 /.

    G65 = (G6i6 - G5i5 G7i7 + G6i6)/ i4 =

    = (264680,4 - 264575,4 - 56,532882 + 63,457693)/ 3190 = 6,845 /.

    G85 = (G8i8 - G7i7 G9i9 + G8i8)/ i2 =

    = (2641066,8 - 264877,8 - 14,3161176+38,8141071)/ 3030 = 24,630 /.

    :

    G65 = 6,845 /; G85 = 24,630 /.

    = 94,57 /.

    |G65 - G64|= |6,845 - 6,925| = 0,08 0,2;

    |G85 - G84|= |24,630 - 24,498| = 0,132 0,2.

    ( ).

    Gϳ , / = f(N) :

    6.1.

    N

    G1

    G2

    G3

    G4

    G5

    G6

    G7

    G8

    G9

    1

    11,606

    4,491

    6,461

    8,257

    6,024

    9,085

    16,663

    19,655

    12,735

    2

    10,975

    3,394

    5,537

    7,642

    4,628

    7,757

    17,693

    22,973

    13,773

    3

    10,974

    3,215

    5,332

    7,476

    4,218

    7,149

    17,718

    24,11

    14,167

    4

    ---

    ---

    5,289

    ---

    4,106

    6,925

    ---

    24,498

    14,316

    5

    ---

    ---

    ---

    ---

    ---

    6,845

    ---

    24,630

    ---

    6.

    :

    V.. = 0,001 3/;

    .. = P P= 1,25 + 30.2 1,8 = 35,05 ;

    .. = 0,75;

    G.. = G = 264 /;

    12337,6 .

    .

    :

    = 12589,4 .


    :

    0 = 3 - = 3430 2760 = 670 /;

    = 0 = 670 0,8 = 536 /.

    :

    23,488 /.

    7.


    :

    G0 = G = 264 /;

    G1 = G0 G9 = 264 14,316 = 249,684 /;

    G2 = G1 G8 = 249,684 24,630 = 225,054 /;

    G3 = G2 G7 G = 225,054 17,718 23,488 = 183,848 /;

    G4 = G3 G6 G = 183,848 6,845 2,253 = 174,75 /;

    G5 = G4 G5 = 174,75 4,106 = 170,644 /;

    G6 = G5 G4 G = 170,644 7,476 3,491 = 159,677 /;

    G7 = G6 G3 + G = 159,677 5,289 + 23,488 = 177,876 /;

    G8 = G7 G2 = 177,876 3,215 = 174,661 /;

    G9 = G8 G1 = 174,661 10,974 = 163,687 /.

    :

    i0 = i0 i1 = 3450 3100 = 350 /;

    i1 = i1 i2 = 3100 3030 = 70 /;

    i3 = i i3 = 3670 3430 = 240 /;

    i4 = i3 i4 = 3430 3190 = 240 /;

    i5 = i4 i5 = 3190 3040 = 150 /;

    i6 = i5 i6 =3040 2940 = 100 /;

    i7 = i6 i7 = 2940 2820 = 120 /;

    i8 = i7 i8 = 2820 2730 = 90 /;

    i9 = i8 i9 = 2730 2610 = 120 /;

    i10 = i9 i =2610 2340 = 270 /.

    :

    N0 = G0i0 = 264350 = 92400 ;

    N1 = G1i1 = 249,68470 = 17477,88 ;

    N3 = G2i3 = 225,054240 = 54012,96 ;

    N4 = G3i4 = 183,848240 = 44123,52 ;

    N5 = G4i5 = 174,75150 = 26212,5 ;

    N6 = G5i6 = 170,644100 = 17064,4 ;

    N7 = G6i7 = 159,677120 = 19161,24 ;

    N8 = G7i8 = 177,87690 = 16008,84 ;

    N9 = G8i9 = 174,661120 = 20959,32 ;

    N10 = G9i10 = 163,687270 = 44195,49 .

    N= N1 + N3 + N4 + N5 + N6 + N7 + N8 + N9 + N10 =

    = 351616,15 = 351,6 ;

    N = N = 351616,150.980.990.96 =

    = 327492,47 = 327,5 .

    8. -

    i = i9 = 1171,8 /;

    Q = G(i0 - i) = 264(3450 - 1171,8) = 601444,8 ;

    G = G2 = 225,054 /;

    Q = G(i - ) = 225,054(3670 - 3028,8) = 144304,6248 ;

    Q = Q+ Q - Q= 601444,8 + 144304,6 15000 = 730749,4 ;

    N = N = 327492,470.910.98 = 292057,8 .

    :

    :

    .

    :

    9.

    :

    d

    13.6

    W

    2 /

    ʳ

    z

    4

    S

    22

    A

    0.1

    d

    16

    ³

    l

    0.5

    2.4

    1.2

    ʳ

    n

    10

    5

    l

    0.1

    R

    0.5

    ij

    D

    0.6

    K

    0.44

    K

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    0.76

    8.3

    ʳ

    6500

    C

    300 .

    E

    0.15

    0.07

    93.410-6

    Pr

    0.852

    581.410-3

    41

    .

    , .3:

    G= 44.643 /

    i =306.6 /

    i=504 /

    t=73 C

    t=120 C

    ts=125 C

    ʳ : .

    ʳ : .

    ij : .

    ij : .

    : .

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    :

    :

    :

    , .3:

    G = 44,643 /;

    i=504 /;

    i=630 /;

    t=120 C;

    t=150 C;

    ts=165 C.

    ʳ : .

    ʳ : .

    ij : .

    ij : .

    : .

    : .

    : .

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    :

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    㳿 :

    :

    :

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    10.

    :

    11.1

    ,

    0,06

    ,

    t

    35,85

    ᒺ , 3/

    V

    30

    ,

    t1

    12

    Z

    2

    , /

    2

    ʳ

    N

    1

    ,

    d

    28

    ,

    d

    26

    0,3

    ,

    L

    8,9

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    , ./(3/)

    C

    16

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    28

    㳿 , ./()

    ..

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    , ./(2)

    C

    0

    ,

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    10

    d

    1

    0,9

    , .3: i = i = = 2343,76 /.

    , .8:

    GK = G9 = 163,6873600 = 589273,2 /.

    :

    :

    :

    :

    :

    :

    :

    :

    :

    :

    :

    , :

    :

    2.

    :

    d = G /F = 589273,2 /8206 = 71,814 /(2).

    ʳ :

    .

    ij :

    .

    ó :

    :

    ³

    :

    .

    :

    2.

    :

    ./.

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    11.

    1. ( 1, . 45).

    t1 = 27 1 = 0,1 2. , n. t2, Q, , , G. . , , 13. .

    t1,

    n

    G, /

    1,

    2,

    00

    27

    1,25

    300

    0,1

    0,9

    T2, Q, N ?

    :

    1). . t1 = t2 = 27C; U = 0;

    /;

    /;

    ;

    /();

    :

    .

    2). . ; k = 1,4; q = 0.

    K;

    /;

    /;

    .

    3). . ;

    K;

    /;

    /;

    /;

    ;

    .

    :

    2,

    q

    U

    l

    S

    N,

    /

    .

    300

    189,2

    0

    -189,2

    -0,63

    -15,7

    .

    562

    0

    187,9

    -187,9

    0

    -21,9

    .

    465,5

    -71,2

    118,7

    -189,9

    -0,189

    -19,8

    4, (4, . 47).

    , ᒺ , V, , t'1, t''1, t'2, t''2. , . 16.

    VH, 3/

    K, /(2)

    t'1C

    t''1C

    t'2C

    t''2C

    00

    1000

    18

    600

    400

    20

    300

    :

    , 2:

    :

    : = 1,03 /;

    :

    Q = Cpmt = 1,030,215(300 20) = 62 ;

    :

    ). :

    ). :

    3. (1, . 48).

    D. , , , (); 1 (1 3) ᒺ , t. , , . 17.

    . , 5-8 .

    D, /

    

    t, C

    00

    3 ()

    160

    0,15

    130

    :

    WP = 18; AP = 29,5; SP = 1; CP = 37,3; HP = 2,8;

    NP = 0,9; OP = 10,5; =13,9 /.

    -.

    : = 1,25.

    : =Ҡ+=1,25+0,15=1,4.

    :

    V0 = 0,089CP + 0,265HP + 0,033(SP - OP) =

    = 0,08937,3 + 0,2652,8 + 0,033(1 10,5) = 3,75 3/;

    ᒺ :

    V = ( - 1)V0 = (1,4 1)3,75 = 1,5 3/;

    ᒺ :

    VRO2 = 0,0186(CP + 0,375SP) = 0,0186(37,3 + 0,3751) = 0,701 3/;

    ᒺ :

    VR2 = 0,79V0 + 0,008NP = 0,793,75 + 0,0080,9 = 2,97 3/;

    ij ᒺ :

    V = VRO2 + VR2 + V = 0,701 + 2,97 + 1,5 = 5,171 3/;

    ᒺ :

    VH2O = 0,0124(9HP + WP) + 0,0161 V0 =

    = 0,0124(92,8 + 18) + 0,01613,75 = 0,596 3/;

    ᒺ :

    V = V + VH2O = 5,171 + 0,596 = 5,767 3/;

    :

    I = [(ViCi)]t = (VRO2CRO2 + VR2CR2 + VH2OCH2O + VCB)t.

    ᒺ , t = 130C, /(3): CRO2 = 1,8; CR2 = 1,3; CH2O = 1,52; CB = 1,3.

    I = (0,7011,8 + 2,971,3 + 0,5961,52 + 1,51,3)130 = 1037,2 /.

    2. (2, . 46).

    1 = 3 1 = 0,95 , t; 2. ( hs ) ( 1 ), , 2 . . , 1. , , 14.

    t, C

    p2,

    p1,

    235

    3,0

    0,50

    :

    0 = 2635 /; t1 = 140C;

    t = t1 + t = 140 + 235 = 375C;

    i = 3240 /;

    q = i i0 = 3240 2635 = 605 /;

    x2 = 0,912; iK = 2340 /;

    l = i - iK = 3240 2340 = 900 /;

    tK = 24C;

    iK = CPBtK = 4,224 = 100,8 /;

    q = i - iK = 3240 100,8 = 3139,2 /;

     = l /q = 900 /3139,2 = 0,29.

    P = 0,5 ; iK = 2300 /; 2 = 0,9.

    l = i i = 3240 2300 = 940 /.

    5. (4, . 50).

    . , , , . , , /. , , .

    Ne,

    n, /

    pi,

    z

    i

    S/D

    00

    100

    2100

    600

    4

    0,38

    0,81

    0,95

    :

    ᒺ :

    :

    - :

    :

    7. (3, . 47).

    [ = 20 /()] , t. , t, 0,1 . 1 2 ; q1, 1 , d1, d2. , , 15.

    t,

    , /

    t,

    d1,

    d2,

    00

    200

    0,42

    18

    190

    210

    :

    ˳ :

    - , :

    :

    ; .

    . = 1,05.

    1 GrPr.

    t = 18: Pr = 0,7; V = 13,610-6 2/;

     = 2,4610-2 /().

    ;

     = 1/T; t t t = 120 18 = 102C;

    GrPr = 0,7127,5106 = 89,25106; (GrPr) 109;

    Nu = 0,5(GrPr)0,25(Pr /Pr)0,25 = 0,5(89,25106)0,25(0,7 /1,05)0,25 = 52,5.

    102 = 416,364 /.

    6.

    = 470 1 = 30 1 , , 2 = 20 . (/), f = 30 .

    :

    :

    ᒺ:

    :

    :

    12.

    300 :

  • :

  • i0 = 3450 /; i = 3670 /;

    i1 = 3100 /; = 3028,8 /;

    i2 = 3028,8 /. = 2941 /;

    i3 = 3430 /; = 2343,76 /;

    i4 = 3190 /;

    i5 = 3040 /;

    i6 = 2941 /.

    i7 = 2820 /;

    i8 = 2730 /;

    i9 = 2610 /.

  • .

  • :

  • t=70C

    t==150C

    =73C

    =120C

    t'= t'4 = 165C

    t'= t'6 = 125C

    = i4= 3190 /

    = i6 = 2940 /

    G = 44,643 /.

    = 504 /;

    = 630 /;

    = 693 /.

    G = 2,253 /.

    = 306.6 /;

    = 525 /.

    G = 5,744 /.

    G = 3,491 /.

    i= 294 /.

    i = 427,071 /.

    t = 101,7C.

  • :

  • G = 264 /.

    G1 = 10,974 /; G2 = 3,215 /; G3 = 5,289 /;

    G4 = 7,476 /; G5 = 4,106 /; G6 = 6,845 /;

    G7 = 17,718 /; G8 = 24,63 /; G9 = 14,316 /.

  • :

  • .. = 35,05 ; 12,337 .

    12,589 ; 23,488 /.

  • :

  • N= 351,6 ; N = 327,5 .

  • - :

  • N = 292,06 ;

    .

  • :

  • ;

  • :

  • 2; ;

    ; .

  • .

  • 13.

    1. .., .. : ( ) - . .: . ., 1986. 62 .

    2. .., .. : . .: , 1988. 233 .


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